Mujeres mas bellas del peru
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Perú en la Agenda 2030
Nueva Luz, En Foco Vol 9: In Amazonian Dark Earths:.
Thus it is the computational demands of managing complex interactions that has peri neocortical evolution. One in which human movements are seen a relatively fast and strategic, demonstrating great flexibility in a diversity of environments, necessitating complex information exchange systems that allow group decision making and feedback, but without the necessity for hierarchy or plans. In a heterarchical framework social order can be understood as an emergent effect of a complex adaptive system.
If Mujere set of structures has a spatial homo then there must have been a homo or homo of planners. Likewise the landscape was marked by lines ceques radiating out from the capital Cuzco. The Insible Homo Homo.
While a hierarchical framework implies that systemic superstructural forces produce social order. In turn heterarchical models have a dynamic based in multiplicity and difference, while hierarchical models are totalizing. I would argue that the answer to how work with multiplicity is not to simply favour the heterarchical, but to hold these two frameworks in the kind of tension of agonistic pluralism advocated by Dussel, that would allow for emergent knowledges and spaces. Python Rock, oldest religious site, Tsodilo Hills, Botswana, 77 kya To date production of universalising scientific knowledge has been a narrative of dependency on a tightly demarcated organisation of abstract space and regularized movement.
Del peru Mujeres mas bellas
Aspero, the site at the mouth of the Supe river on which Caral stands, was excavated in by Willey and Corbett. Fig 11 Aerial view Caral Complex Fig 12 Ampitheatre Pyramid Caral Fig 13 Caral Megalith Fig 14 Main Plaza torch lit Fig 15 Caral Geoglyph Human Face Fig 16 Shicra woven reed bags of differing sizes filled with stones image Fig 17 year-old engraved gourd image reveals the fanged teeth and splayed feet of the It was not until the late s that the single-minded persistence of the Peruvian archaeologist Ruth Shady revealed its full complexity and extent with multiple, massive pyramids, temples, plazas and residences.
At this period the only other site with that degree of urban complexity was Sumer in Mesopotamia. The same can be said of recent work in Amazonia. The region may have had a population of million, but who, in a wavefront of disease, possibly smallpox, disappeared ahead of full-scale Spanish invasion. Such large populations, it is claimed, were made possible by the total and deliberate transformation of what would be otherwise rather difficult and restricted ecosystems with very poor soil subject to severe flooding. The Amazon, on this account, is not a pristine wilderness, but an anthropogenic construct, a performative landscape with spatial, temporal and epistemological dimensions, a co-production of human agency, knowledge practices, movement and the environment.
Until recently what has gone unnoticed, seemingly invisible in the dense rainforests, were the massive complexes of geometrical earthworks, mounds, causeways, canals, roads, fishtraps and terra preta. Around the Amazon and its tributaries in the floodplains varzea the dark earth terra preta mounds, carefully and deliberately created out of soil mixed with charcoal, broken pottery, fish and food remains and human excreta, were superbly fertile, allowing the abundant growth of food crops.
These massive constructions are most likely to be performance spaces, though there is some possibility that they had defensive functions. Whatever their function the researchers anticipate finding thousands more such structures, revealing a completely unexpected degree of social complexity in a region held to have been only capable of supporting simple villages. The critics argue that the massive earthworks would have required a correspondingly massive workforce, which in turn would have necessitated a hierarchical social structure and division of labour, typical of state-level societies, along with an augmented food supply, i.
These communities were creating knowledge spaces, enabling people, practices and places to be linked together. They socialised the landscape through performance of a collective social identity. Norte Chico is of great importance because of its special features, not just its surprising age. All the sites are centered on irrigation utilising the seasonal floodwaters of the four main rivers coming down from the Andes. While some food crops were grown in these irrigation areas, the dominant crop was domesticated cotton. Fig 23 Bandurria 4. Over time what may have developed was a relationship of co-dependence rather than dominance by one or the other.
Equally problematic is the qustionof how the labour force was organised to build this massive complex of monuments [V3]? If a set of structures has a spatial ordering then there must have been a planner or group of planners. The apparent differentiation in the quality of domestic spaces may be evidence of social division, but it may also be interpreted as permanent and occasional accommodation.
However, the claim of necessary hierarchy looks less cogent if the large geometric and spatially organised structures in the Amazon were built communally without an expert elite. Other archaeologists such as Richard Burger suggest that it was possible to mobilize the large labor force needed for such monumental architecture without state coercion. Like Shady he thinks religious ideology was the key innovation: In motivating collective efforts, maintaining order and perpetuating the system… an ideology that held that the community not the individual owned and controlled critical resources… structured many of the productive activities and shaped social and economic dimensions.
The first gives the community active and engaged agency rather than reducing them to passivity and coercion. The second is the manifest spatial character of all the Norte Chico sites and especially Caral, where the central and most obvious characteristic is not the buildings or their layout, but the plazas and their associated performance spaces, Mujeres mas bellas del peru where the community enact their understandings of the world and the cosmos. However, the performative and emergent character of an heterarchical, distributive system, framework cannot be Mujeres mas bellas del peru presumptively, it has to be held in tension with the top down structuralist character of an hierarchical one.
But I also think we should treat the notion of tension as having more ontological significance than this epistemological point would suggest. These reasons lie in the role of string and stories, textiles, khipu and narratives; other forms of connection which seem relatively slight, mundane and banal against the massive solidity of the pyramids and the vast plazas, but which were also central to the performance of knowledge and space at Caral. Fig 31 Oldest Khipu Caral Fig 32 Caral textile In a sealed room in one of the pyramids in Shady and her team made the most exciting find at Caral — the earliest known example of a khipu, a proto-khipu consisting of a ladder-like assemblage of 12 cotton strings, some knotted, wrapped around sticks.
Famously Khipu are the knotted string devices used for recoding and transmitting information in the Inca Empire. Along with the khipu many fragments of textiles have been which along with the landscape itself are held to be readable as narratives of social order and identity. Maybe a map, a solar observatory, a shrine, an altar, a performance space, on, in, through and around. Likewise the landscape was marked by lines ceques radiating out from the capital Cuzco. These lines joining sacred shrines huacas formed an abstract social map projected onto the landscape as paths, which had their fabric and material analog in the knotted string khipu.
Their spin, colour, size of knots and so on can record all kinds of knowledge. It has been known for some time that some of them are numerical ledger books recording llama flock numbers, labour tax records, tributes and food quantities in storage. They are used in pairs in dialogue with each other; one as sort of simulation of an agenda, the other a simulation of the results. The dialogue between the plan and the record generates the communally agreed rationality of the community and public acknowledgement of the labour obligations of its members. Basically Salomon finds khipu to be operational devices for trying out alternatives, for modelling and assembling a plan for the commons through being publicly performed in theatres or ceremonial plazas.
Movements are performed by groups of people through the actions of their own bodies and are coordinated and motivated through ritual, music, dance and stories. Historically stories and string were very likely coproduced with one another; they certainly inform each other mythopoetically through the fundamental commonality of narrative and weaving. Weaving and storytelling reflect a common origin in the derivation of text and textile from the Latin verb texere to weave. What weaving, stories, and string share is the complex duality of tension and connection, difference and similarity.
Stories join ideas, string joins things together, and both are dependent on tension. Weaving depends on the tension between the warp and the weft. Conklin, architect, archaeologist and research associate at the Textile Museum in Washington, D. Textiles are important to every society. But their role in Andean societies as carriers of meaning and power is different from anything else that I know. However, I would argue, along with Dussel, that in order to ground an anti-foundationalist position with its recognition of multiple incommensurable knowledge traditions you need to sustain critical reason in order to avoid the vitiation of simply celebrating difference.
Such ontological dimensions are typically concealed and invisible behind a screen of self-evidence in any given tradition, bringing them to the fore and recognising them may best achieved through by putting them on a equitable footing, acknowledging that all knowledges whether they are indigenous, scientific or traditional, are local in that they are performed by people in places with specific practices. Holding them in tension can reveal the differing ways in which knowledge and space are co-produced. The linkings of people, practices and places and the production of knowledge spaces have messy, contingent, and only partly acknowledged dimensions: In addition to being profoundly narratological and spatial, knowledges are also performative, they are based in embodied practices, in the movement of human bodies in engagement with each other, with the physical environment, and with their own artifacts, in the movement along cognitive trails through conceptual space in making linkages and connections.
Both these projects sustain the commons by allowing differing knowledges to work together while holding them in tension rather than absorbing them into one dominant tradition, but that is a story for another day. Working with Incommensurable Knowledge Traditions: Post coloniality for Dummies: In Coloniality at Large: Latin America and the Postcolonial Debate, edited by M. Opening up the Canon of Knowledge and Recognition of Difference. In Another Knowledge is Possible: Beyond Northern Epistemologies, edited by B. Latin America and the Location of Knowledge. Guns, Germs and Steel: Llena Eres de Gracia by Enrique Planas.
Manos que no Ven by Alberto Villar Campos. Nueva Luz, En Foco Vol Nueva Luz, En Foco Vol 9: The Insible Wall Portfolio. El Material de los Dialogos by Carlo Trivelli. Directo al Corazon, Lima Peru: Exhibition Book Essay by Fernando Fuenzalida. Filmmaking at New York University. Painting at Art Students' League. Art Restoration at Fine Art Decorating. Download CV - TOP All copyrights for the images of the works on this site remain with the individual copyright holders.